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Spontaneously or following an injury, the shoulder can become stiff and painful.  The capsule around the joint becomes contracted which limits the motion of the shoulder.  The loss of motion and the stiffness cause pain. 

Early treatment involves medications and injections to relieve pain and inflammation, as well as physical therapy to stretch and release the adhesions. 

Resistant cases of Frozen Shoulder require manipulation under general anesthesia and sometimes, arthroscopic lysis of adhesions. 

As soon as range of motion is restored, the pain resolves.